The “Framework” is a broad overview or outline of interlinked items which supports the CM approach to meet its specific objective for an organisation.
Integrated Crisis Management
For any crisis management framework to be effective, there is a requirement to have the key component of a crisis management identified and integrated. Mitroff and Pearson (1993) pointed out that most crisis procedures are ineffective because they failed to spell out explicitly and systematically how to respond to the four CM components.
Key Components for Crisis Management
Components of CM
The four CM components are categorised as types, stages, systems and interested parties.
“Types” refer to the scope of the CM plan. It answers the following questions:
- What crisis should the organization prepare for?
- What kinds of crisis can be neglected safely?
- What is the criterion or rationale for deciding which crises to prepare for or neglect?
Stages and Phases
The “Stages” and “Phases” addresses the activities involved and the management issues at each phase of the crisis. The three stages of crisis are:
- During Crisis; and
- Post Crisis.
The “Phases” refers to the six “Rs”. It corresponds to the activity sequence before, during and after an incident. They are:
- Restore; and
Stages of a Crisis.
The “Systems” examines the causes of the crisis. These sub-variables and their interaction can be identified as having a critical influence on the origin of the crisis. They are categorised as:
- Organizational Misdeeds
- Skewed Management Values
- Management Misconduct
- Workplace Violence
- Lack of Funds
Interested Parties (or Stakeholders)
Interested Party is often referred to as any person, group or entity with a real and direct interest and can make the decisions that will result in a recognizable stake in the outcome within an organization.
Identify Interested Parties.
Setting the Crisis Management Framework
Developing a crisis management capability (BS 11200, 2014) needed to be strategically directed from the top of an organization and implemented through a crisis management framework.
One aspect of this is that executive management should establish, define and document policy for crisis management that:
- outline clearly and concisely their objectives in managing a crisis;
- describe in broad terms how they intend to realize these; and
- Demonstrate management commitment to high standards in crisis management.
The policy should serve as the basis and business case for further activities related to the planning and implementation of crisis management procedures.
The policy statement should identify those responsible for its different elements, overall coordination and embedding of crisis management as a mainstream activity.
The policy statement should:
- Establish priorities, timelines and standards for delivering key elements of the organization’s crisis management capability, as well as resources as appropriate.
- Include mechanisms for review;
- ensure that the policy continues to be supported;
- remains consistent with the overall strategic objectives of the organization; and
- monitor progress and evaluate against the agreed deliverables.
Roles and Responsibilities
Roles and responsibilities required to implement all crisis management capabilities should be identified, documented and communicated. Consideration should be given to people’s knowledge, skills, and experience. The organization should consider the resources needed for each element of the capability and the associated requirements for training. It should also appoint a person(s) with the appropriate authority to be accountable for the development and implementation of crisis management capability and its ongoing maintenance and management across the whole organization.
Enterprise-wide CM Strategy
There should be an enterprise-level strategy (Hamilton, 2014). This includes the policy-driven requirement that the crisis management program exists to support or otherwise safeguard every employee in every company located in the world, regardless of political or organizational alignment or the functional role of the individual.
Goh, M. H. (2016). A Manager’s Guide to Implement Your Crisis Management Plan . Business Continuity Management Specialist Series (1st ed., p. 192). Singapore: GMH Pte Ltd.
Extracted from Develop CM Framework
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